Complexity in Self-Assembling Systems
In the last decades, self-assembly research has mostly been focusing on the exploration of (near) equilibrium states, as well as on systems containing only a single building block.
While this has led to breakthroughs in the design of switchable and functional materials, the overall properties fall short of the complexity and functionalities in living systems.
Therefore, we pursue new types of self-assembly concepts to also serve the long term goal of integrating life-like features into artificial self-assembling systems in the long term.
Our strategies include:
kinetic pathway guidance to access non-equilibrium states selectively
self-sorting phenomena and reconfiguration in multicomponent systems
the integration of structural and chemical feedback loops to orchestrate events in time, and reach adaptive and autonomous systems
the integration of energy storage and energy dissipation schemes to obtain active steady-state systems with autonomous behavior
Closely connected to this research line are our efforts to advance microscopic imaging techniques, and to connect new types of structure formation processes and autonomous dynamics to the design of hierarchical materials.
5 Selected References on Static and Switchable Self-Assemblies:
1. Loescher, S., Walther, A. “Multivalency Pattern Recognition to Sort Colloidal Assemblies” Small 17, 2005668 (2021).
2. Loescher, S., Walther, A. “Supracolloidal Self‐Assembly of Divalent Janus 3D DNA Origami via Programmable Multivalent Host/Guest Interactions” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 59, 5515 (2020).
3. Han, K., Go, D., Tigges, T., Rahimi, K., Kuehne, A. J. K., Walther, A. “Social Self-Sorting of Colloidal Families in Co-Assembling Microgel Systems” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 56, 1521 (2017) (Selected as Hot Paper, highlighted in chemistryviews.org).
4. Gelissen, A., Oppermann, A., Caumanns, T., Hebbeker, P., Turnhoff, S., Tiwari, R., Eisold, S., Simon, U., Lu, Y., Mayer, J., Richtering, W., Walther, A., Woell, D. “3D structures of responsive nano-compartmentalized microgels” Nano Lett. 16, 7295 (2016).
5. Gröschel, A. H., Walther, A., Löbling, T. I., Schacher, F. H., Schmalz, H., Müller, A. H. E. “Guided Hierarchical Co-assembly of Soft Patchy Particles” Nature, 503, 247 (2013).
1. Groeschel, A., Walther, A. “Block Copolymer Micelles with Inverted Morphologies” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 56, 1572 (2017) (Highlight article).
2. Walther, A., Müller, A. H. E. "Janus particles: Synthesis, Self-Assembly, Physical Properties and Applications", Chem. Rev. 113, 5194 (2013).